Using the FRISK Documentation Model

In order to support and improve employee performance, the SVVSD has adopted the FRISK Documentation Model as a communication framework to promote positive change. FRISK™ is an acronym representing the universal components which should be included in any communication with employees involving performance concerns.  Each of these components has a special purpose:


F FACTS evidencing the employee’s unsatisfactory conduct.
R RULE or authority violated by the employee’s behavior.
I IMPACT of the employee’s unsatisfactory conduct on the workplace.
S SUGGESTIONS to assist the employee in improving performance and directions as to the proper conduct the employee is expected to follow in the future.   These directions are also referred to as Directives such as “Immediately you will…”.
K KNOWLEDGE of the employee’s right to respond to corrective documentation placed in the personnel file.

FRISKThe FRISK™ Model focuses on each FRISK™ communication component and identifies basic guidelines and procedures necessary for their proper application in communicating, documenting, and correcting employee performance problems.  It is a critical component in a progressive discipline model.

There are three elements that must be considered:

  1. The process will be positive. Emphasis is placed on the potential of employees to change/improve their behavior/performance rather than punitive measures.
  2. The process will be corrective. Supervisors have a responsibility to assist employees in modifying their conduct.
  3. The process will be progressive. By progressively increasing the severity of the communication and discipline imposed for persistent misconduct or failure to meet the established standard it is expected that employees will be given the necessary incentive to take corrective action.

For more information on using the FRISK Documentation Model, contact your Area HR Director and access your book as a reference:

Andelson, S. J.  (1998).  FRISK™ Documentation Model, Practical Guidelines for Evaluators in Documenting Unsatisfactory Employee Performance, 15th Edition.  Atkinson, Andelson, Loya, Ruud & Romo publishers.

FRISK Quick Reference Guide

F – Facts: 

What did the employee do?

Pinpoint the specific conduct and describe the conduct in complete and explicit terms.  If necessary, supplement general statements with specific examples to provide a proper factual foundation.
R – Rule: 

What should the employee have done?

Include the rule, policy, authority or expectation relating to the deficient performance or misconduct, such as board policies or administrative regulations, collective bargaining agreement provisions, administrative directives, board policy sections, recognized professional standards. Be sure to include prior same rule violations.
I – Impact: 

What was the impact of the employee’s conduct on the discipline, department, college, and/or district?

Include facts which describe the negative or adverse effect of the employee’s conduct on the discipline, department, school, and/or district, most notably on other employees and students.
S – Suggestions: 

When and what do you want the employee to do?  What will happen if there is no improvement?  How can you help the employee to improve?

Include clear and unequivocal directions on the proper conduct you expect the employee to follow, the effective timelines and the consequences if the employee fails to comply (these are also referred to as “directives”), AND include suggestions for improvement as well as notifying the employee of resources available or that could be made available to support them in complying with the directives.
K – Knowledge: 

Does the employee have knowledge of the disciplinary document?

Include language notifying the employee of the right to file a response to a derogatory document prior to the document’s placement in the personnel file.

For more information about using the FRISK Documentation Model, connect with your area director in Human Resources as well as your direct supervisor:


Ella Padilla
Assistant Superintendent of Human Resources


Dina Perfetti-Deany

Executive Director of Human Resources


Damon Brown

Director of Human Resources and Risk Management


Mary Miner

Director of Human Resources



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