- Early Start
- Right Start/Buen Comienzo
- Intervention by Design
- Quick Reads
PRINT is a tier two intervention for first and second graders who have not responded to classroom instruction and other interventions. Instruction is explicit, direct and systematic, particularly in the areas of phonological awareness and phonics. It follows a logical scope and sequence in teaching the alphabetic principle.
- The profile of the student that would benefit most from this intervention
- TheÂ populationÂ this intervention will best address
- Research on the effectiveness of this intervention
For those children at risk of reading failure, the instruction must be more explicit, more intense and more supportive than instruction typically is. (Joseph Torgeson, Ph.D., Preventing Reading Failure-and Its Devastating Downward Spiral, 2005.)
PRINT groups are small (2-4 students) and when at all possible, the lessons are 45 minutes long. Children are grouped homogeneously. They have nearly identical needs: all need to develop an understanding of how English works. They need clear instruction in letter knowledge, phonological awareness, phonics, segmenting sounds for spelling and blending sounds for reading, spelling generalizations, and sight word vocabulary. These elements are explicitly taught, and practiced extensively for over learning. Explicit instruction leaves nothing to chance. Careful seqencing allows skills to be practiced and developed over time. Instruction occurs in small incremental steps so that new material may be connected to the known and can be practiced at length.
Probably the strongest finding of the report of the National Reading Panel (2000) is the effectiveness of systematic phonics instruction. (Uhry and Clark, Dyslexia: Theory and Practice of Instruction, page 91, 2004).
The profile of the student that would most benefit from this intervention
PRINT was designed for children low in phonological awareness and consequently, phonics and fluent reading. The idea is that to catch these children early, ideally in kindergarten and first grade (and second) and teach them the foundational skills they need in order to access print, to break the code in order to read fluently and with comprehension.
“Children who are destined to be poor readers in fourth grade almost invariably have difficulties in kindergarten and first grade with critical phonological skills: their knowledge of letter names, their phonemic awareness, their ability to match sound to print, and their other skills in using the alphabetic principle are weak.” (Joseph Torgesen Ph.D. Preventing Reading Failure- and Its Devastating Downward Spiral , 2005).
Specifically, first and second graders who score low in all the foundational skills on the literacy assessment battery are candidates for PRINT. These students have developed insufficient skills in phonological awareness and phonics. They are low in letter knowledge: naming the letters as well as the sound/symbol relationships. They have scored low in blending and segmenting. Kindergarteners will have scored low in beginning sounds and rhyming. These children may score low in reading text, as well. They fall in the lowest ranges of the “red” bands.
Conversely, children that have high scores in the foundational skills and are not yet reading texts would be placed in Right Start. These children need to put what they know about letters and sounds together to read books and Right Start is ideal for this. Right Start is a more balanced approach whereas PRINT is focused on phonological awareness and phonics. PRINT’s focus is on breaking the code.
The population this intervention will best address
First and second grade students are the target group for this intervention. It can also be used with all elementary grade children who need explicit and direct instruction in phonological awareness, phonics, and understanding how English works.
Research on the effectiveness of this intervention
There is an abundance of research that clearly shows the effectiveness of explicit, direct and systematic instruction in the alphabetic code. Some of the researchers and organizations include:
- Joseph Torgeson, Ph.D. Florida Center for Reading Research
G. Reid Lyon
Sharon Vaughn, University of Texas, Austin
The Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators
International Dyslexia Association
National Reading Panel
The NRP identified a large body of research showing that explicit teaching of the relationship of print and sounds through phonological awareness training and phonics was especially effective in kindergarten and grade one. (G. Reid Lyon, Rethinking Special Education for the 21st Century, page 276)